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Энтеровирус D68: молекулярно-биологическая характеристика, особенности инфекции

https://doi.org/10.21145/2225-0026-2019-2-40-54

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Аннотация

Энтеровирусы человека (род Enterovirus, семейство Picornaviridae) – инфекционные агенты, характеризующиеся широким спектром клинических проявлений. Значительную роль в паталогии человека играет EV-D68, ассоциированный с респираторными и неврологическими заболеваниями. Вирус был открыт в 1962 году и долгое время обнаруживался лишь спорадически, однако начиная с конца 2000х гг. наблюдается устойчивый рост случаев обнаружения вируса в разных странах мира. Масштабная вспышка EV-D68 произошла в США в 2014 году. Вирус характеризуется уникальными биологическими свойствами, сочетающими признаки энтеровирусов и риновирусов, имеет значительное генетическое разнообразие и в настоящее время представлен штаммами четырех основных филогенетических линий. В связи с кислоточувствительностью основным местом репликации вируса являются эпителиоциты респираторного тракта. EV-D68 вызывает преимущественно патологию верхних и нижний дыхательных путей разной степени тяжести, однако имеются многочисленные данные о связи вируса с возникновением острых вялых параличей и обострениями астмы. Группами риска по заболеванию EV-D68 являются разные возрастные группы населения, преимущественно дети младшего возраста. В аналитическом обзоре представлена информация по таксономическому положению и истории классификации, структурной организация вириона и генома, генетическому разнообразию вируса. Значительная часть материала посвящена клинико-эпидемиологическим аспектам инфекции. Освещены вопросы современного состояния специфической профилактики и терапии EV-D68. Приведена информация о подходах и методах идентификации вируса.

Конфликт интересов. Авторы заявляют об отсутствии явного или потенциального конфликта интересов, связанного с публикацией статьи.

Об авторах

В. В. Зверев
ФБУН «Нижегородский научно-исследовательский институт эпидемиологии и микробиологии им. академика И.Н. Блохиной» Федеральной службы по надзору в сфере защиты прав потребителей и благополучия человека»
Россия
Зверев Владимир Владимирович


Н. А. Новикова
ФБУН «Нижегородский научно-исследовательский институт эпидемиологии и микробиологии им. академика И.Н. Блохиной» Федеральной службы по надзору в сфере защиты прав потребителей и благополучия человека»
Россия


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Для цитирования:


Зверев В.В., Новикова Н.А. Энтеровирус D68: молекулярно-биологическая характеристика, особенности инфекции. Журнал МедиАль. 2019;(2):40-54. https://doi.org/10.21145/2225-0026-2019-2-40-54

For citation:


Zverev V.V., Novikova N.A. Enterovirus D68: molecular biological characteristics, features of infection. MediAl. 2019;(2):40-54. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.21145/2225-0026-2019-2-40-54

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